High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Valhalla was a ZX Spectrum and Commodore 64 adventure game published in 1983 by Legend.The publishing house Legend had earlier published titles under the Microl label. Legend's chairman and founder was John Peel. The developers were Richard Edwards, Graham Asher, Charles Goodwin, James Learmont and Andrew Owen. The original game was released in English for the Sinclair Spectrum 48K. The Movisoft graphics engine occupied 4K of the game footprint and used machine code, the rest of the game engine and parser was written in Sinclair BASIC. After its successful launch in the UK, it was then ported to the Commodore 64, with pirate editions appearing in Spanish.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Albedo Al-bee-dough is a measure of the fraction of reflected incident sunlight. When an object reflects most of the light that hits it, it looks bright and it has a high albedo. The word is derived from Latin albedo "whiteness", in turn from albus "white", and was introduced into optics by Johann Heinrich Lambert in his 1760 work Photometria. The range of possible values is from 0 dark to 1 bright. The albedo is an important concept in climatology and astronomy, as well as in computer graphics and computer vision. In climatology it is sometimes expressed as a percentage. Its value depends on the frequency of radiation considered: unqualified, it usually refers to some appropriate average across the spectrum of visible light. In general, the albedo depends on the direction and directional distribution of incoming radiation. Exceptions are Lambertian surfaces, which scatter radiation in all directions in a cosine function, so their albedo does not depend on the incoming distribution.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! 3D Monster Maze (not to be confused with 3-Demon, also known as Monster Maze) is a computer game developed by Malcolm Evans in 1981 for the Sinclair ZX81 platform with the 16 KB memory expansion. The game was initially released by J. K. Greye Software in early 1982 and re-released later the same year by Evans' own startup, New Generation Software. Rendered using low-resolution character block "graphics", it was the first 3D game for a home computer. 3D Monster Maze puts the player in a maze with one exit and a hostile monster, the Tyrannosaurus rex. There, the player must traverse the maze, from the first-person perspective, and escape through the exit without being eaten. New Generation Software went on to become a well-known software firm with the Sinclair platform and continued to pioneer the 3D gaming technology for ZX81 and the later model Sinclair ZX Spectrum. The press immediately gave the game a title of a "firm favourite" of the ZX81 users. Decades later, it became popular with the retrogaming community, inspiring remakes and fueling ZX81 emulation projects.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! A racing video game is a genre of video games, either in the first- or third-person perspective, in which the player partakes in a racing competition with any type of land, air, or sea vehicles. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to entirely fantastical settings. In general, they can be distributed along a spectrum anywhere between hardcore simulations, and simpler arcade racing games. The arcade game Gran Trak 10, released by Atari in 1974, is generally considered the progenitor of the genre. Gran Trak 10 presents an overhead view of the track in low resolution white on black graphics, on which the player races against the clock to accumulate points. While challenging, it is not competition racing. Night Racer, released by Micronetics in 1977, extended the genre into three dimensions by presenting a series of posts by the edge of the road. There was no view of the road or the player's car and the graphics are still low resolution white on black. Like Gran Trak 10, gameplay was a race against the clock. Turbo (1981) by Sega was the first racing game to feature a third-person perspective, rear view format.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Odin Computer Graphics were a Liverpool-based computer games developer who came to prominence in the mid-1980s with a variety of titles for the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64 and Amstrad CPC home computers. Odin consisted of managing director Paul McKenna, programmers Steve Wetherill, Robbie Tinman, Mark Dawson, Keith Robinson, George Barnes, Tommy Laningan, Derrick Rowson, Stefan Walker, Steve P, artists Paul Salmon, Stuart James Fotheringham, Colin Grunes and Andy R, and musician Keith Tinman. Bernie Duggs and musician Fred Gray are also credited.
Vienna is known throughout the world as the capital of social housing. Since the 1920s, the Austrian metropolis has indeed developed a unique system of subsidized housing con-struction independently of the “free” market, accommodating more than 60 percent of its population today.The Vienna Model 2: Housing for the Twenty-First-Century City, which is the book accom-panying the successful exhibition of the same name, analyzes the latest devel¬opments in housing and documents 50 projects in Vienna from recent years. It shows how technical, ecological, and social qualities are continuously developed further as part of a broad participatory process, thereby setting new standards. The spectrum ranges from the revitalization of neighborhoods to the planning of new city districts. Moreover, The Vienna Model 2: Housing for the Twenty-First-Century City describes the inter¬national building exhibition IBA_Vienna 2022 with the theme “New Social Housing.” In parallel, Sorcha Edwards and Cédric Van Styvendael analyze the current challenges and possible solutions to the issue of housing in the European Union. Sasha Tsenkova, in turn, presents the Canadian approaches to creating affordable living space. The essay by Mladen Jadric provides an overview of social housing in China, India, Indonesia, Singapore, and South Korea. William Menking analyzes New York’s public housing and its relation to Vienna. With 250 illustrations and graphics, the status quo for building innovative Viennese housing forms is captured in this volume.
The most comprehensive and authoritative reference available today on colorectal surgeryThis revised fourth edition of Gordon and Nivatvongs' Principles and Practice of Surgery for the Colon, Rectum, and Anus edited by David Beck, Steven Wexner, and Janice Rafferty strikes a perfect balance between evidence-based medicine, in-depth details, and clinical pearls. The result is a highly engaging and authoritative tome in the grand tradition of Philip Gordon and Santhat Nivatvongs. Building on the widely acclaimed previous editions' reputation for superb quality and reader-friendliness, the fourth edition includes contributions from an expanded cadre of internationally known experts.Significant advances have been made in this field since the third edition was published. The latest diagnostic modalities are highlighted such as MRI, CT angiography, and enterography. The first section covers essentials such as anatomy, physiology, diagnosis, colonoscopy, and patient management. Sections two through four discuss a full spectrum of anorectal diseases, colorectal disorders, trauma, unexpected challenges, and complications. Among the additions are expanded sections on transanal total mesorectal excision, genetics, personalized medicine, "wait and watch" principles, outpatient management of anorectal surgery, and large bowel obstruction.Key HighlightsThirty-seven chapters cover a wide array of gastrointestinal disorders such as fecal incontinence, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, carcinomas, and other malignant lesionsA multidisciplinary team approach to rectal cancer encompasses rectal cancer protocol MRI, synoptic reporting, and various neoadjuvant therapy protocolsThe use of cutting-edge approaches including laparoscopy, robotics, hyperbaric oxygen, and radiofrequency tissue remodelingSuperb full-color plates, illustrations, photographs, diagrams, detailed tables, graphics, and surgical videos elucidate underlying disease and managementAs the most comprehensive resource on colorectal surgery available on the market today, this is a must-have for every colon and rectal surgeon - from residents to veteran practitioners.
The history of computer-aided face recognition dates back to the 1960s, yet the problem of automatic face recognition a task that humans perform routinely and effortlessly in our daily lives still poses great challenges, especially in unconstrained conditions.This highly anticipated new edition of the Handbook of Face Recognition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following 26 chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions.Topics and features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems, examines the design of accurate, reliable, and secure face recognition systems, provides comprehensive coverage of face detection, tracking, alignment, feature extraction, and recognition technologies, and issues in evaluation, systems, security, and applications, contains numerous step-by-step algorithms, describes a broad range of applications from person verification, surveillance, and security, to entertainment, presents contributions from an international selection of preeminent experts, integrates numerous supporting graphs, tables, charts, and performance data.This practical and authoritative reference is the essential resource for researchers, professionals and students involved in image processing, computer vision, biometrics, security, Internet, mobile devices, human-computer interface, E-services, computer graphics and animation, and the computer game industry.
Deformable objects are ubiquitous in the world surrounding us, on all levels from micro to macro. The need to study such shapes and model their behavior arises in a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from medicine to security. In recent years, non-rigid shapes have attracted growing interest, which has led to rapid development of the field, where state-of-the-art results from very different sciences - theoretical and numerical geometry, optimization, linear algebra, graph theory, machine learning and computer graphics, to mention several - are applied to find solutions.This book gives an overview of the current state of science in analysis and synthesis of non-rigid shapes. Everyday examples are used to explain concepts and to illustrate different techniques. The presentation unfolds systematically and numerous figures enrich the engaging exposition. Practice problems follow at the end of each chapter, with detailed solutions to selected problems in the appendix. A gallery of colored images enhances the text.This book will be of interest to graduate students, researchers and professionals in different fields of mathematics, computer science and engineering. It may be used for courses in computer vision, numerical geometry and geometric modeling and computer graphics or for self-study.